Bear Spray is proven to be the most effective deterrent to an attack when used correctly. This bear spray contains 1% Capsaicin (plus .84% major capsaicinoids) - which is the strongest formula allowed in Canada. The effective range is 225g - 9 meter range (better coverage due to heavy fog spray pattern). The spray time is 5.6 seconds. It will not cause permanent damage to the animal, and is a non-flammable formula.